Planning and Design
- Time of issue:2021-05-07 13:58:54
Currently science play a role in learning about the nature, nature utilization and remaking nature. It is the critical period for intellectual to take responsibility and historical mission.
We wish to demonstrate our opinion and research standing at intellectual perspective with independent and rational thinking, professional ethics and responsibility. Strengthen technology function in learning, changing and protecting the world. Use scientific evidence to tell the world that we believe science have the penetration to solve .politics and economy problems and help human to back on appropriate approach of development.
Where is the appropriate approach for human in the complex world?
How to reduce social development cost to build a better world?
It is important to systematic effort to arrange and fully analyse earth crisis especially opinions and solutions vary about source of global warming situation.
Global warming---an unquestioned fact
Is global warming caused by increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide?
The biggest flood, drought andtyphoonin a century frequently occur. Is the extreme climate related to global warming?
Where is the way out of saving earth and ecological restoration?
Can strongly advocated carbon capture solve the fundamental problems?
There are various effect factors of temperature changing. atmospheric temperature changing is result from the joint effects of sunspot periodic motion, seasons change, water distribution and circulation, ground vegetation, wildfire and volcanic eruption. The concentrate of carbon dioxide only occupy four in ten thousandth in atmosphere, which has little effect. The reason of large temperature difference between day and night, desert, forest, land, ocean and seasons is not only related to concentration of carbon dioxide. In other words, the concentrations of carbon dioxide are not unique and conclusive factor in temperature change.
There are various influence factor related to the concentrations of carbon dioxide and temperature is not the only one. The concentration of carbon dioxide is a dynamic value affected by vegetation density, quantity of biotic population, wildfire, volcanic eruption andchanges in ocean temperatures. It varies with regional environment.data obtained from antarctic ice sheet and greenland ice sheet could not perfectly represented variation trend of concentrate change of carbon dioxide in air, because composition of air and carbon dioxide concentration in very cold areas is different from other districts ( there exist condensation, adsorption, diffusion and other influence factors).
1. There are many research about energy, ecological environment, circular economy and so and in domestic and overseas. But some main researches and conclusions have dispute, deficiency and imperfection which will lead to different even contrary conclusion. Various researches are void of
general evaluation criterion. Many opinions often use phased research result, advantage or index as evaluation basis to evaluate the whole process. Different researchers have different focus field so that there is no comparable evaluation basis. In further, there is no comparable conclusion of these researches.
2. Building general evaluation basis should include following contents.
(1) Taking primary energy as basis, conversion efficiency of whole process of converting to usable energy for end user. Energy consumption of pre-treat, shipping, storage, processing and operation process should be excluded. Energy consumption of equipment used in whole production process, equipment consumable and preparation process. It would be better to provide energy balance and material balance data during the whole process in order to give reasonable appraisement about energy and resource utilization.
(2) According to the amount of waste gas,waste water and waste residues calculated by material balance in whole process, including the amount of carbon dioxide generated in process, to evaluate the effect on ecological environment.
(3) Provide production cost and investment in whole process to evaluate economical rationality. Whether it has benefit for local economy development and employment.
(4) Ensure the possibility, reliability and safety of implementation and advancement and innovation of technology.
3. According to primary energy, resource and end user obtained energy, resource, it has the same evaluation basis for research results of different processes.
There are several problems need to notice. Firstly, energy conservation and emission reduction and saving energy are not be considered as a whole in the comprehensive evaluation system even expense more energy to achieve the object of energy conservation and emission reduction. It is a big defect that take no account of whole material consumption and related energy consumption. Besides, much resource could not be recycled. It is more significant to promote energy-saving and cost-reducing rather than energy conservation and emission reduction. This is the key of sustainable development, save resources and comprehensive use of resource.
4. Utilization efficiency of different types and temperatures energy is seldom considered. At present, the whole utilization efficiency of the whole process is barely used as standard. Most of situations refer to first law of thermodynamics to evaluate. It hardly use available energy( exergy) referred to second law of thermodynamics as basis. For example, if use thermal energy for home heating, it only generate 100℃low energy derived from thermal energy of gas. According to first law of thermodynamics, thermal energy efficiency could achieve above 90%. But in fact available energy ( entropy) loss is huge which is a kind of waste.
5.There is not enough attention to functions of technological progress and innovation in energy saving and emission reduction. No a complete set of encouragement and evaluation system in policy support. Researches of effective reaction, separation process and equipment could dramatically decrease process energy consumption.
6. Greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide emission is related to the earth mean temperature changes. Though it could not be the direct standard of energy conservation and emission reduction, it has closely connection with measures and systems among nations.We agree with carbon dioxide as index of reducing energy consumption. There are some doubtful point and uncertainty in mainstream opinions. It is hard to be convinced that greenhouse effect is the only reason for melting glaciers and rise of water level in the ocean.
Basic ideas---Using principles of chemical engineering to analyse climate
Earth-Air-Sun balance system
Using mass and heat transfer principle to analyse climate change
Sun--- heat source
Earth--- heated body and exchange body
Air---heat transferring medium
Water---efficient heat transferring medium
Climate change present the process of surface temperature balance and regulation
Heat balance of earth
Earth surface and atmosphere temperature change could be estimated by following energy balance equations.
Q1+Q2+ Q4 > Q3+Q5（temperature increase）
Q1+Q2+ Q4 = Q3+Q5（temperature constant）
Q1+Q2+ Q4 < Q3+Q5（temperature decrease）
Three type of calorie sources:
Q1——solar energy Q2——geothermal energy Q4—— heat of combustion
Two ways of heat absorption or release to get temperature balance
Q3——biomass energy Q5—— dissipated heat
The key of maintaining the temperature balance of earth is scattering solar power received by earth to the universe as much as possible.
In order to make Q5 approximate Q1, Q1 could be used directly and decrease Q4. The most efficient way is increasing Q3. Pay attention to light and heat exchange efficiency of surface material to ensure Q5.
Vapour in air rapidly condense into water or ice crystal and form cloud or fog in the sky. It is like ceiling of sky to reflect, obstruct, absorb and release polar power, which could efficiently reduce and diminish direct sunlight.
Water play an important role in temperature control
liquid water has the largest specific heat value. hydrones perform better in infrared absorption than carbon dioxide and contribute more in greenhouse effect. Vapour’s specific heat is 4.1 times than air and 5 times than carbon dioxide at same quality. The value of specific heat of vapor is 1.8 times of air and 2.2 times of carbon dioxide. In standard condition, heat it absorbs for water evaporating into steam is 200 thousand times comparing with the same volume of air and the volume increases 1244 times. Heat it absorbs for ice melting into water is 20 thousand times comparing with the same volume of air. Heat it absorbs for ice sublimating into water vapor is 200 thousand times comparing with the same volume of air. Therefore water is the main material to control constant temperature heat exchange between earth surface and air.
Heat exchange of water gives the greatest contribution
Saturated vapor pressure of water is 3200 Pa at 25℃, which occupy 30% of the volume of earth's atmosphere. Liquid water’s specific heat is 4.1 times of air at same quality. At 25℃, heat exchange efficiency of balanced vapor is 5.7% of air. Hence water heat exchange in humid air could not be ignored. Heat transfer contribution rate of phase transformation is several times to millions times than air. Its function of balance temperature is incomparable.
Weather variations like wind, rain and storm are exchange, storage and transfer of polar power in ground and space and water is the major carrier. Gas-liquid phase change of water could cause huge change in volume, which lead to hurricane. Global warming result in increase of the circulating amount of water in air in further it increase storm's strength.
Vapour’s greenhouse effect is larger
The concentration of carbon dioxide has reached 385.2ppm in 2008. It only increase one ten thousandth in air after industrialization. Water is the most important greenhouse gas in nature and it is 1-2% in atmosphere component. Its content is higher in atmosphere than in carbon dioxide. Saturated vapor pressure of water is 3200 Pa at 25℃, which is 83 times of volume concentration of carbon dioxide. Vapors could absorbed 4 times energy from sunlight comparing with carbon dioxide. In a word, water is much more effective in greenhouse effect rather than carbon dioxide.
It is wrong to ignore the contribution of carbon dioxide in ecological balance. And carbon dioxide is not the attributable to global warming.
It is easily understand and explain climate change base on water balance
Temperature could keep constant owe to enough water distributing in earth's ocean, land, biomass, glacier, atmosphere and cloud through heat exchange functions like reflection, absorption, evaporation, condensation and convection to avoid extremely weather occur.
Decreasing of snow, glacier, water surface, vegetation cover and wet soil would lead to decrease of regional evaporation of water surface and water and decrease the whole thickness of the clouds. As a result, atmosphere’s reflection and heat exchange function of sunlight are diminished and intensity of sunlight reaching the earth's surface increase. These lead to temperature rising, aggravate spotty drought, evaporated water rising up, precipitation increasing and expect more frequent and intense extreme weather like hyperthermia and rainstorm.
Earth's water conservation is the key
Every 1ppm increase of average concentration of carbon dioxide in atmosphere would lead to 7.6 billion tonne increment. If we assume 2ppm increase of average concentration of carbon dioxide every year, plants need to absorb at least 15.2 billion tonne carbon dioxide to reach carbon balance. As a result, the stored energy is 1.34×1020J that occupy 4.5% in global stored biomass energy annual. There is an estimation that the amount of carbon fixed by plants through photosynthesis in one year is 2×1011 tonne. The total biomass generated by photosynthesis reaches 170 billion tonne (dry weight) and stored energy is 3×1021J. The entire biosphere' average conversion rate is
3％-5％, if plant photosynthesis conversion in temperate district is 0.5％-2.5％in term of an average calculation of the whole solar radiation energy. Only by water retention, large area afforestation, reducing soil desertification, increasing sunlight area and promoting photosynthesis is it the right way to break earth crisis.
Keep enough water is the key
Water is the most efficient heat transfer material. Heat derived from sunlight directly radiating to the surface is transferred by water absorption and exothermic process. Water could efficiently absorb and release solar heat through conversion of time and space. Water is the controller to balance environment temperature. Water is the most important factor in controlling the earth's environment temperature. Temperature decrease through evaporation while temperature would not fall too much through condensing like ice or snow to release heat. A part of polar energy absorbs by sea, soil and biomass and the other part directly use to evaporate water which transfer to the atmosphere and release the heat to the outer. Surface temperature of low specific heat soil and sand with low water content is easy to increase. Low humidity in surface and air have poor performance in heat exchange effect, which is more likely to drought and desertification.
Keep enough water and rationaldistribution is the key to balance atmospheric temperature.
Water is the unique living substance of earth
Water has three states which is liquid, solid and gas. hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere together form the most basic natural layer of the the crust of the earth. Water covers more than 70% of the earth's surface area. The total volume of water is 1.386×10.9 billion cubic meters. However, 97.5% of them is saline water stored in ocean and other r water bodies.
Freshwater is rare
Only 2.5%of water is freshwater. Two-thirds of them store in ice sheet and mountain glacier of polar regions. The rest of one-third distribute as following:
Underground include water-course and underground rive---1.31016 m3, Lake--- 2.51014m3, atmosphere---1.31013m3, biomass---1.461016m3.
Freshwater in soil and surface is less than 0.5% of the total amount of freshwater.
Freshwater resource like other resources on earth, which is finiteness and scarcity in quantity. It is only 1% of freshwater reserves could be used for human.
Water has great impact on atmospheric motion and energy conversion
The vapor in atmosphere come from rivers, lakes, oceans and land surface evaporation. In hot and humid area like high sea surface temperatures in the ocean or forest, moisture content ’s volume ratio could reach 4% in atmosphere. But in dry and cold area like polar region, it only below 0.01%.
Moisture change phases with temperature change and it could form cloud and rain. It is also the main resource of freshwater. Water phase change and circulation not only closely connect atmosphere with hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere but also have huge influence on atmospheric flow with energy conversion and climate change.
There are several ways that water balance climates.
Water not only present various forms like rain, fog, snow, frost and ice to decorate and beauty the earth but also control and balance surface temperature, humidity. Water is the most important regulation substance with functions solar-thermal conversion of absorption, reflection and release solar power and energy transfer function. Water is playing an irreplaceable role in maintaining suitable eco-environment. Vapour is actually a greenhouse gas. Solar power push water’s morphologic change and transfer, make it circulates among oceans, lands, organism, underground and atmosphere. Paying attention to water retain and recycle is the key to research global warming and water resources shortage.
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